Tuesday, September 18, 2012

Mitsubishi i-MiEV Initial Performance Numbers

For Better or Worse

Using my Motorola Droid X and an application called Car Performance, I tested the i-MiEVs acceleration.  This was as much of a test of the application loaded on my cell phone as it was the Mitsubishi's speed test.

For comparison, here is a link to a site with 0-60 MPH times (and 1/4 mile times) for many vehicles.  http://www.ssmoparmuscle.com/speedcomp.htm 
Keep in mind that very few people treat every stop light like a drag strip.  This electric vehicle is not designed to be the quickest off the line, but rather to accelerate modestly and get up to four passengers around town without ever needing to visit a gas station.  A feat which it accomplishes handsomely.

Here are the results from testing performed in a very unscientific manner...

The test conditions:
  • 58 degrees F ambient temperature
  • 65 MPH highway entrance ramp (not true straight)
  • single occupant
  • dry road
  • road slope: even
  • wind: calm
  • drive mode: Drive
  • 65 PSI tire pressure
  • 4 bars of charge at start
The results:
  • 0-20: 1.500 s
  • 0-40: 5.487 s
  • 0-60: 11.432 s
  • 60' in 3.502 s @ 35.33 MPH
  • 330' in 7.419 s @ 50.06 MPH
  • 1/8 mile in 11.437 s @ 60.30 MPH
  • 1000' in 15.413 s @65.48 MPH
  • 1/4 mile results don't apply since the car was not still accelerating above speed limit
I expect to repeat the test in the future (and get better results), maybe an early Sunday morning before traffic becomes an issue.  The next test will be repeated in the opposite direction to account for wind and slope variations.  Testing will also be conducted using "Eco" driving mode. 

As for the Car Performance app, it worked very well for my purposes.  It is simple in operation so there isn't any distraction while driving.  The app works with GPS to calculate speed and times.  There is a "START" button that is pressed while stopped, and the timer starts when the vehicle starts moving.  It offers the ability to store tests, which is why I'm able to report my results.  There are a few other results that it has that would be of interest to the the hypermiling side of the equation.  Those are maximum speed, distance, and total run time.

Monday, September 17, 2012

Operating cost for the Mitsubishi i-MiEV just got cheaper

Astrological Event - Mitsu matures in Virgo

The planets must be nearing alignment because things just keep improving in the realm of the Mitsu. 

To recap previous “events”:
·         $7,500 Federal (U.S.) tax credit
·         $3,000-$4,000 Illinois state refund
·         $81.50 reduction in license plate renewal fee for state of IL
·         $4.00 a gallon gas (that the Mistu will never have to worry about)
·         0.0% interest for 48 months on vehicle loan

What’s the latest improvement?
            48.8% lower residential electricity rates!  Prior to the new rate, the cost per kilowatt hour of electricity was $0.0911.  The new rate is $0.0466.  The reason for the rate reduction was the elected officials from the city of Rockford supporting an aggregation program with ComEd, our local electricity supplier.  Here is how the operating costs are affected.  My calculated cost per mile, for electricity only, was $0.022, (2.2 cents per mile).  Why state “for electricity only”?  Because an alternative way to calculate cost per mile would be to include things like insurance, license plates, (long pause while I try to think about what else the Mitsubishi requires) no to oil changes, no to radiator flushes, no to tune ups.  It will need new brakes eventually.   See the blog on hyper-miling and regenerative braking to find out how brake pad use is reduced.  So getting back to topic, the new cost per mile is essentially $0.011, just over one penny per mile.  Compare that to a gasoline powered car that averages 25 MPG and uses gas that costs $4.00 per gallon, which computes to $0.16 per mile.  I have gone from being more than 7 times cheaper to operate to being over 14 times cheaper.  Imagine the euphoria if the price of gas suddenly and permanently dropped to $2.00 a gallon.  Then drivers of gas powered cars might experience what I'm feeling.

Friday, September 14, 2012

Hypermiling in the Mitsubishi i-MiEV

As if electric vehicles (EVs) weren’t already energy efficient enough compared to their gas powered siblings, there are ways to extend even more range out of a charge.  Hypermiling is the act of using conscious actions to go farther by using less energy.  Several mechanisms exist for active hypermiling.  And there are a few other passive mechanisms that have been employed by others.  For the purposes of this discussion, “active” refers to actions that take place while driving and “passive” refers to actions that take place outside the actual act of driving but influence the driving range.

Active:  Hypermiling should be thought of as a challenge to see how far one can make a charge last.  But the activities described below should not be performed where the progress of other drivers is unduly impeded.  For example, don't pull out in front of oncoming traffic and accelerate at a pace so slow that it causes traffic to slow down behind you.  Either accelerate at a normal pace or wait for a larger gap.
·         Regenerative braking: This feature is not an option for non-electric vehicles.  Instead, non-electric vehicles with a manual transmission have the option of engine braking.  It is essentially the same action, but regenerative braking will not just slow the car down, it will return power to the batteries.  The biggest returns are gained from the highest speeds, and below 11MPH there is almost no recovered energy.  In regards to the Mitsubishi i-MiEV, there are three forward driving modes. 
o   Drive: Offers minimal regenerative braking.  In exchange, the slowing of the car when the accelerator is lifted is less abrupt.  This is the least used mode for the purposes of hypermiling.
o   Eco: The regenerative braking during Eco mode is between that of drive and Brake mode.  Eco mode also restricts the amount of power delivered to the motor which results in slower acceleration, but also less power consumed and thus longer range versus quick accelerations.  Eco mode is where almost all of the acceleration is performed and some braking is done.
o   Brake: The regenerative braking in Brake mode is the most aggressive of the three.  The response is not as harsh as someone stabbing the brakes.  It is closer to down-shifting one gear with engine braking on a manual transmission on a car with an internal combustion engine.  For the lone occupant in a vehicle it is not an issue.  If one or more passengers are along for the ride, it wouldn’t be advised.  The acceleration available in Brake mode is equal to that in Drive mode.  The majority of braking is done with Brake mode.  The balance is done in Eco to slow down more gradually and in Neutral to coast before coming to a stop.
·         Neutral/coasting:  Given that any of the three driving modes above will result in some regenerative braking (above 11 MPH), putting the transmission in neutral will allow the car to coast. It uses no battery power to propel the car forward, but also won’t receive any increase in battery charge.  Coasting in neutral would be most advantageous when going down a slight incline where vehicle speed can be maintained by gravity and the slowing caused by regenerative braking would not be desired.  Coasting can also contribute to range extension by putting the car in neutral around 11 MPH and coasting to a stop.  This technique takes time to develop since the operator needs to determine the distance from the eventual stop to begin coasting.
·         Shifting:  The truly "active" part of hypermiling is the act of shifting between the modes mentioned above.  Driving in only Eco mode would provide more range than driving only in Drive mode.  But to squeeze even more range out of the batteries, shifting between modes at the proper times will be crucial.  Shifting and anticipation are physical and mental counterparts to the range extending exercises.
·         Speed:  The slower a vehicle travels, the less energy is used to propel it.  Hypermilers rarely exceed the speed limit and several will travel about 5 MPH below the speed limit providing they are not holding up traffic behind them.
·         Acceleration:  Contrary to what the media might portray, electric vehicles are not slow by nature.  An electric motor has its full torque available at any rpm range and does not have to ramp up to achieve maximum torque.  That being said, if a driver is easy on the accelerator, longer overall range can be obtained by slower paced take-offs.  Using Eco mode to accelerate makes the task easier.  Driving efficiently could be visualized as driving with an open container of liquid.  Not as in 'don’t get caught with an open can of beer', but as in 'you have a bowl of hot soup in your lap'. If you accelerate too fast or brake too hard, the chances are some soup will spill.  The optimal rate to accelerate is close to that of a fully loaded semi truck or cement truck.  Likewise the optimal rate for braking is to use regenerative braking down to about 11 MPH, then apply the brakes to come to a complete stop.
·         Route:  Elements that can affect which route to choose are factors such as the number of traffic lights or stop signs, elevation changes, congestion, distance, average speeds, and elapsed time.  Here is a breakdown of how each influences the decision.  These are things that can apply to internal combustion engines (ICE) too.
o   Traffic lights: Let’s assume roads with two-way traffic are being used.  Turning right at intersections offers the best chance of uninterrupted driving.  Cars turning right on green have the right-of-way and in addition many traffic lights have a right turn arrow light while cross traffic is provided a left turn arrow.  If you catch this “bonus time” you can continue on your way.  If you are on a side street where the light is triggered by the presence of a vehicle, you may be able to proceed before getting a green light by waiting for a clearing in traffic.  The next best action at a traffic light is to go forward.  If equal time is given to each direction of traffic, a driver has a 50/50 chance of approaching a green light.
o   Stop signs:  Picking a route where cross traffic has to stop, but travel in your direction does not is the optimum condition.  In terms of EV’s, a 4-way stop is not much different from a stop where cross traffic does not have to stop.  An EV does not get penalized for “idling” the way an ICE does.  The positive side to stop signs are the opportunity for some regenerative braking.
o   Elevation changes:  A flat course is better for overall range than a hilly course, given both routes are an equal distance.  At some point there will be a trade-off where a shorter route over a hill is more economical than a longer route around the hill.  Absent any serious mathematical computations, simple trial and error may yield clear benefits of one method over the other.
o   Congestion:  The penalty for driving on congested streets is higher for ICE’s than for EV’s.  EV’s get a little pay back from stop and go traffic due to regenerative braking.  But having creep forward then stop through two or three traffic light cycles to get through an intersection is inefficient driving.
o   Distance:  The distance factor is a culmination of trying to find a route that offers the advantageous parts of hypermiling without having to go too far out of your way to achieve the results.  For example, it usually isn’t more efficient to drive three extra blocks to avoid a stop sign for the sake of being able to make continuous forward progress.
o   Average speeds:  Sometimes you can get away with driving 35 MPH in a 40 MPH zone.  By that I mean without holding up traffic behind you and becoming a menace to the roadway.  Hypermiling is about getting somewhere efficiently, but without being self-righteous and denying others their right to expect unimpeded progress.  Other times you could choose to use back roads or residential streets while traveling parallel to surface streets.  The lower your ‘traveling’ average speed (does not include acceleration or braking), the higher your overall range.
o   Elapsed time:  Elapsed time:  If a person isn’t using accessories such as heater, air conditioner, or radio, then the elapsed time is not too much of a factor.  However if using devices that will shorten their range, the route decision must also factor in total time the vehicle is on.  Just sitting at a stop light isn’t penalized if the A/C is off.  But if it is running, then you want to find a route that minimizes overall travel time.
·         Anticipation:  What does one do when the traffic light ahead has the ”DON’T WALK” light flashing for pedestrians?  It usually means the crossing light will become steady followed by the traffic light turning yellow.  Anticipation factors into hypermiling because the driver will have to determine if they can get to the intersection before the light turns yellow or if they should begin slowing down early.  If the chosen route has a sequence of traffic lights that are timed and require traveling at a certain speed or accelerating at a certain rate to not get stopped, then this consideration can trump the slow acceleration argument.  Another situation you may be faced with is when approaching a left turn.  If you spot a gap in traffic, it may require accelerating or decelerating to time the gap.  Sometimes a driver may have to carry more speed through a corner than is typical in order to turn earlier rather than come to a complete stop and wait for another opportunity to turn.
·         Accessories: Never place hypermiling above safety!  If the defroster is needed to be able to see out the front windshield, then use it.  But using the heater or air conditioning will reduce your range.  When looking at the estimated range on the i-MiEV, one can see the range decrease as the fan speed increases.  The lesson here is; if you use accessories that aren’t essential, your range goes down.  The Mitsubishi does have a seat heater for the driver.  They state that it is more energy efficient to use the seat heater to warm the driver than to use the vehicle heater to warm the entire cabin.

·         Tire pressure: Conventional wisdom/Documented evidence states that if your tires are underinflated, the vehicle’s fuel/energy economy is reduced.  Some hypermilers look at the situation and apply extrapolated logic.  Overinflated tires should increase fuel/energy economy.  And probably they will.  But how much pressure to add above stated levels?  The drawbacks are the risks from overinflated tires.  What is the burst pressure at which the tire will blow itself off the rim?  Since tires heat up while traveling and that forces the tire pressure to increase, a static tire that is overinflated may not be a hazard.  In fact many people overinflate their tires while storing a vehicle to reduce the chances for getting flat spots on the tires.  But an already overinflated tire may reach burst pressure while traveling.  In addition to the safety risk is the financial risk.  Will an overinflated tire wear faster (at least locally if not uniformly) than a properly inflated tire.  The cost of early tire replacement could outweigh any financial gains from saving a few cents during recharging.  Lastly is ride comfort.  The higher the tire pressure, the stiffer the vehicle ride which typically transfers motion to the occupants.  With the caveats out of the way, the debate remains.  Should it be done?  How much could be done?  I am only informing others that it is being done.  I am not endorsing the practice.  But other anecdotal evidence is the fact that many SCCA racers routinely inflate the tires on their race cars to 40-45 psi.  And while they do worry about burst pressure and blowing out a tire, they are not as concerned about tire wear and a smooth ride.
·         Extra weight: How extreme can it get?  The i-MiEV does not have a spare tire; it has an emergency tire inflation kit.  Basically a can of Fix-A-Flat.  Part of the rationale could be the fact that the front and rear tires have different profiles.  The front is 145/65R15 and the rear is 175/60R15.  But unless it was a full size spare, it really only has to worry about fitting the same bolt pattern since it is for temporary use.  But in addition to saving cost for the manufacturer, it also saves weight; and that means requiring less effort to bring the car up to speed.  By the same token carrying around unneeded and unused items should be avoided.  I’m not advocating removing the interior door panels to shave off pounds or buying carbon fiber body panels to replace metal ones.  Just don’t carry around a 40 pound bag of dog food for three weeks.

Tuesday, September 11, 2012

Buy a horse or buy a Mitsubishi i-MiEV?

As the negative comments about Electric Vehicles (EV’s) and hybrid vehicles pile up, it’s worth considering if similar critiques have existed in regards to advancing technology in the past.  The avid supporters of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) are quick to point out the limitations of EV’s.  Are the gas and diesel powered vehicle owners of today the same as the horse owners of a century ago?  What would some of the possible criticisms have been when gasoline powered cars were in their infancy?

·         There would have been debates about the high initial cost versus horse cost.
·         The lack of road infrastructure and gas station infrastructure would certainly be a negative.
·         The unknowns of vehicle maintenance would be a hindrance.
·         The overall durability and life expectancy were points for scrutiny.
·         Crank starters before the invention of electric starters were potential arm breakers.
·         The longevity of the market most likely would be described as a fad than a century plus industry that easily affects over 99% of Americans.
·         The lack of acceleration, lack of top speed, lack of range, lack of mobility etc. would have been the prized criticisms to the detractors. 

Yet we are not still riding horses, buggies, and covered wagons.  What happened?  The innovators refused to listen to those afraid of progress!  Imagine where we would be if ocean going explorers were afraid to sail to uncharted waters for fear of falling off the end of the earth.  Imagine where we would be if inventors were afraid to see if they could harness the power of steam or create explosions in a controlled environment with a reciprocating engine.  Imagine if tinkerers had never tried to leave the ground in a self-propelled winged structure.  Imagine where we would be if test pilots were afraid to see what happens when traveling faster than the speed of sound.  Imagine if engineers listened to the detractors about the merits of humans or objects leaving Earth’s gravitational field.  Imagine what could happen if battery power is given another 10, 50, or 100 years of progress!

Innovation is rarely inexpensive, and sometimes unfortunately the ultimate cost is human life.  Sometimes the result of innovation has a negative impact for the environment.  But most innovation has the goal of improving an existing situation.  I believe Electric Vehicles improve the existing situation and are worthy of further enhancements.  I applaud the recent innovators of this technology that had its roots established around a century ago.  I am proud to consider myself an early adapter of EV’s, even if it means having to add clarification that there have been numerous Do-It-Yourselfers who converted an existing car rather than being able to buy one off a dealership lot.  (It probably makes me more like a pilgrim than like the original explorers.  But relative to how small the EV market is compared to the overall automotive market, I consider myself a candidate in that category.  I am the first person I know personally to have an electric car.)

There is no reason despise the critics.  Sure it would be great if they demonstrated an open mind, but they do provide market feedback for the manufacturers.  The technology is not yet mature enough to be universally accepted.  Reflect on the path the computer industry has been on over the last 40 years.  Microsoft in particular did not start off with an operating system that was universally accepted.  They listened to the customer and adapted the product to what the customer was requesting.  If they waited until they had a product that would be universally accepted before introducing anything to market, they would not exist today.  Sometimes it takes a while for technology to catch up with expectations.  Is it reasonable to expect EV’s to have universal appeal?  Today, the answer is NO.  In the next few decades, I certainly hope so.  In the mean time, I’ll try to inform and convert a few open minded individuals and praise the ongoing efforts of those willing to push the boundaries.

Monday, September 10, 2012

The Mitsubishi i-MiEV and the Electric Competition

The Electric Competition

I bought a 2012 Mitsubishi i-MiEV.  What else is out there in the market?  One segment of electric cars is NEV's (Neighborhood Electric Vehicles).  NEV's are allowed to be legally driven on roads with a speed limit of 35 MPH or less.  However, NEV's are not eligible for the $7,500 federal tax credit.

GEM E4S 2013 Model Year NEV: (Global Electric Motorcars) The price as configured on their web site to closely imitate what I bought was $18,604.  The added options were ABS plastic doors, maintenance-free battery, 7HP motor, enclosed cargo carrier, headlights, heater/defogger, and front bumper. 

If we look at prices...
2012 Mitsubishi i-MiEV ES with quick charge option and shipping is $30,675.  Subtract from that the $2,000 negotiated off from the sticker price, the $7,500 federal tax credit, and the $3,000 IL state tax credit, and the adjusted price is $18,175. 

Without even having to factor the GEM's top speed (25 MPH), the i-MiEV is clearly a better choice for my needs.  And I can drive up to an electronically limited 81 MPH.  A quick search did not find any numbers for the range in miles for the GEM, but I doubt it would have a 62 mile range.  It may be suitable for a range of other applications and users, but not me and mine.

But the limitation for any NEV for my purposes would be where I could drive.  My commute to work is only 2 miles.  I could drive one to work and home, but that would be about it.  There are other places I could go, but with a 25 MPH top speed and lack of safety features, I wouldn't feel comfortable on main streets that were posted at 30 or 35 MPH.

So what is the other highway legal competition? 

If given my choice of EV's I would surely get a TESLA.  Either the Roadster or the  Model S would make me happy.  The driving range is exceptional and offered with 3 battery packages providing 3 different ranges.  But the cost is above what my current budget will allow.  Would I buy one if I could readily afford it? Certainly!

The HONDA FIT EV was on my radar for a little while.  Then I found out they would only be offered for lease, and only in certain states.  Illinois wasn't one of them.  The styling was very traditional and the shade of blue exclusively offered on the car is my favorite color.  Wonder what will happen to the cars when they are turned in after the leases are done?

The NISSAN LEAF.  I knew about the Leaf, but I never gave it too much thought.  Not sure why.  I don't have anything against the manufacturer.  But I haven't even bothered to look at the styling that close until writing this piece.  To be honest, if the Nissan cube was offered as an EV, I might have gone that direction.  To get the quick charger added to the car meant getting the SL package, and that made the price $38,100.  Even thought the current infrastructure doesn't support quick charging in my immediate area, within the next 3-5 years it might. 

TH!NK CITY.  In all honesty the availability of a used City was what helped steer me away from the idea of converting a car to electric on my own.  The range was over 100 miles and top speed was 62 MPH.  But it appears the company, that is in and out of bankruptcy, may be in again, and this time it might last.  So warranty issues would weigh heavy on my mind.  Also pricing was around $32,000.  Once again, I'm glad I went with the i-MiEV.  They were close to being a reality.  As far as I can tell, they will continue to be built in Norway where they started.  The Indiana production facility is being shut down.

DIY.  I would have been proud if I could have converted a gasoline powered car into an electric vehicle.  Who knows, in the future I may even rethink going that route.  But the cost of buying the type of battery I would have liked in the quantity that would have been needed to propel the car, plus the motor and all the fixins' most likely would have put me around the same cost as what I paid adjusting for tax credits. 

Saturday, September 1, 2012

Recharging 105 (Remote Charging for Mitsubishi i-MiEV and Nissan Leaf)

How Do You Charge Your EV Away From Home?

Immediately below are some introductory terms that should assist in interpreting the descriptions found on various web sites for charging stations.  A list of web sites supporting charging station locations and screen shots of the maps they provide can be found below the terminology.

Charging terminology

The terms that follow should be able to help when researching charging stations.  Here are some sample descriptions that can be seen when researching charging stations...
1 head ChaDeMo Fast Charger
2-head AeroVironment L2 EVSE
The 2 kW output delivers Level I (120 V @ 16 A) charging via a standard NEMA 5-20 receptacle protected behind a locking door.
The 7.2 kW output delivers Level II (208/240 V @ 30 A) charging via a standard SAE J1772.

350Green.com: Network of charging stations distributed across a metropolitan area. They offer both Level 2 (220v) and DC Fast (480v) options, depending on location and use.

AeroVironment: AeroVironment offers a 240V home-charging station for electric vehicles. It is compatible with the SAE J1772 standard for level 2 charging.  Nissan selected AeroVironment to supply this home charging station and installation services for the Nissan Leaf electric car.  AeroVironment also sells level 3 high-voltage DC fast-charge stations compatible with the CHAdeMO standard that can charge a Think electric car to 80% in 15 minutes.  AeroVironment participates in various government and industry initiatives to create an electric vehicle charging infrastructure.  AeroVironment also sells the PosiCharge line of industrial electric vehicle charging systems for forklifts and other warehouse vehicles.

CHAdeMO: (currently only supported by Nissan Leaf [SL but not SV] and Mitsubishi i-MiEV with Quick Charge optional equipment): per wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CHAdeMO, CHAdeMO (sometimes spelled CHΛdeMO) is the trade name of a quick charging method for battery electric vehicles delivering up to 62.5 kW of high-voltage direct current via a special electrical connector. It is proposed as a global industry standard by an association of the same name.  CHAdeMO is an abbreviation of "CHArge de MOve", equivalent to "charge for moving". The name is a pun for O cha demo ikaga desuka in Japanese, translating to English as "How about some tea?", referring to the time it would take to charge a car. CHΛdeMO can charge a car in less than half an hour.  Also referred to as Level 3 or Quick Charge.

Chargepoint.com:  The largest (9,048 charging spots as of 9/1/2012) network of independently owned EV charging stations.  Company offers a card which can be used at free or pay stations.  Web site provides a detailed map of stations, and reservations for stations can be made online or with downloadable apps.

ChargePro: Charging Station designed for Level 2 charging.

ChargePro Driver Manager: software for electric vehicle drivers used in conjunction with SemaCharge Pass card. "Easily register, manage, monitor and update your charging account through the ChargePro Driver Manager. The web-based management system makes it simple, convenient and effortless to use whether you’re at the office, on your laptop at home or on your mobile device."

CharJit Card (for Fast Charging): Product from 350Green, the $21 card includes three 30-minute sessions good for use at our fast charging stations.
Coulomb Technologies: (Coulomb Level 2) The company that provides charging stations for Chargepoint network.

EV Plug (plugshare.com)

EVSE: Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment, enhances safety by enabling two-way communication between the charging station and the electric vehicle.

ICE: Internal Combustion Engine: a gasoline or diesel powered vehicle.

Level 1:  (L1) Charging from standard household current (110V).  Uses SAE J1772 connector on the vehicle.  Remote stations may offer either an SAE J1772 connector to plug into an EV or offer an electrical outlet (NEMA 5-20) requiring the driver to supply the charger.

Level 2: (L2) Charging from a 240V source.  Uses SAE J1772 connector. 

Level 3: See CHAdeMO above.

NEMA 5-20 outlet/receptacle: All NEMA 5 devices are three-wire grounding devices (hot-neutral-ground) rated for 125 V maximum.  The receptacle is the basic household electric outlet but with the addition of a grounding pin and a T-slot receptacle for the neutral connection.

Quick Charge See CHAdeMO above.

SAE J1772:  Connector used for both Level 1 and Level 2 charging.  It  is a North American standard for electrical connectors for electric vehicles maintained by the Society of Automotive Engineers. It covers the general physical, electrical, communication protocol, and performance requirements for the electric vehicle conductive charge system and coupler. The intent is to define a common electric vehicle conductive charging system architecture including operational requirements and the functional and dimensional requirements for the vehicle inlet and mating connector.  The connector is designed for single phase electrical systems with 120 V or 240 V such as those used in North America and Japan.

SemaCharge: membership program that "gives you access to the EV Driver Management software, exclusive newsletter updates, free giveaways, first hand release of station locations and much more!"

SemaCharge Pass: Credit card sized card issued when becoming a SemaCharge member.

SemaConnect: The company that offers SemaCharge Pass card for use at stations featuring proprietary ChargePro Charging Stations.

Charging stations

Chargepoint map from 9/1/2012

Plugshare map from 9/1/2012 (Just QuickCharge Outlets toggled ON)

afdc map from 9/1/2012

350green map from 9/1/2012